The Tyranny of Christopher Columbus,
When Christopher Columbus returned from his first voyage from the New World, he spread wild exaggerations of exotic riches and wealth that were ripe for the picking. Believing his wild boasts, King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella of Spain granted Columbus a second voyage, one that was to be a mission of colonization rather than exploration. Unlike Columbus’ first voyage, the second voyage would be massive, comprising of 17 ships and over 1,200 men. During his second voyage in 1493, Columbus explored Hispaniola and Cuba. As per agreement with the Spanish crown, Columbus became viceroy of the lands he discovered, and was granted a healthy share of any riches that were found.
Columbus planted his flag on the island of Hispaniola (Haiti and the Dominican Republic), making it the center of his small Caribbean empire. Once situated in the New World, the expedition began their search for the gold that Columbus had boasted off. The only problem was that there really was no gold on Hispaniola, or the rest of the Caribbean. All of the gold jewelry worn by the native Caribbean people was made from rare nuggets and bits of gold dust occasionally found in small rivers and streams, gathered over a period of years. This was quite the problem for Columbus, whose mandate was to find enough wealth to turn a profit of the expedition, not to mention he wanted his own share of the riches as well.
At first, Columbus attempted to make money through the slave trade. Slaving parties would capture local natives and ship them 500 at a time to slave merchants in Spain. However Columbus’ slaving program proved fruitless as over half the slaves would typically die before reaching Europe. Then Columbus set upon a new plan, an even crueler plan to squeeze Hispaniola of all wealth that could be had.
Columbus made a decree that all of the Taino people 14 years and older in Hispaniola had to provide a tax of 1 hawksbell (thimble) of gold every three months. Those who paid the tax were given a copper token to wear around their necks. Those found without a copper token after three months time had their hands cut off. The greed and cruelty of Columbus put the Taino in a no win situation, as in a very short amount of time the islands supply of gold was exhausted. Faced with the prospect of mutilation, many Taino committed suicide. Others fled to the inland mountains where they were hunted down by Spanish soldiers with dogs.
After two years with Columbus as governor of Hispaniola, almost half of Hispanoila’s 250,000 Taino natives had died, either being murdered by the Spanish, or dying of disease, starvation, and exhaustion. As for the Spanish themselves, Columbus spared little of his cruelty. Minor infractions were brutally punished with floggings, mutilation, or even death. Due to mismanagement on Columbus’ part, the Spanish were constantly short of food and supplies. Any talk of mutiny or rebellion against Columbus was met with immediate punishment as Columbus took the role of an all powerful dictator who was beyond reproach.
When Columbus returned to Hispaniola from his third voyage, he found that many of the colonists were in open rebellion against him. He quickly quashed the rebellion and hanged the conspirators, but word of his tyranny reached the Spanish court. After an investigation of Columbus’ governorship, the Spanish king ordered Columbus stripped of his titles and brought back to Europe in chains.
Columbus would spend six weeks in prison before friends in King Ferdinand’s court convinced him to order Columbus’ release. Columbus would conduct one more voyage to the New World, one that would end in disaster. After his exploring days Columbus grew wealthy writing books in which he prophesied the future. In fact, he made more money as a seer than as the ruthless tyrant of the Caribbean. He died in 1506 at the age of 54.
appreciate brown eyes more bc the people with brown eyes are grown up forcing to believe fuckin blue and green and grey are beautiful and either detest or get incredibly happy when someone compliments their eye color stop letting this happen
there are people with brown eyes reblogging this and theyre talking about still being sad with their eye color and this is exactly why we need hype about brown eyes
I’ll be one of those people.
I have brown eyes, and yes, I feel they’re generally meh, boring, ordinary, drab, and as someone said to my childhood self, the colour of shit.
This mehness, you could say, is just in part self-consciousness brought on by negative personal encounters, media, and general preference. I find my eyes boring, and they’re also bad. I’m nearsighted, I wear glasses. And, even further, I get intermittent ocular migraines.
Little love between me and my eyes anyway.
My husband, on the other hand, has changeable blue-grey-amber-oh-it’s-hard-to-say eyes. I adore them, I think they’re beautiful, stunning, deep. It’s part (just a part) of why I married him (he’s also hilarious and kind and blah-blah, eyes). But now, he would say, part of why he married me is due to my eyes. He doesn’t think much of his either.
So, the grass is always greener, or bluer, I suppose.
Brown eyes are less sensitive to light though, guys (even if I’m an exception), and that’s a bonus. Right? But really, more all around love of self and positive hype towards us brown-eyed (i hesitate to use the term “brownies”, uhh) bunch would be great too.
The Kazakhs are the descendants of Turkic, Mongolic and Indo-Iranian tribes and Huns that populated the territory between Siberia and the Black Sea. They are a semi-nomadic people and have roamed the mountains and valleys of western Mongolia with their herds since the 19th century.The ancient art of eagle hunting is one of many traditions and skills that the Kazakhs have been able to hold on to for the last decades. They rely on their clan and herds, believing in pre-Islamic cults of the sky, the ancestors, fire and the supernatural forces of good and evil spirits.
tumblr user smokeybissli celebrates her heritage